By Topic

Relief Shading in General

Biland, J., and A. Çöltekin (2017).
An empirical assessment of the impact of the light direction on the relief inversion effect in shaded relief maps: NNW is better than NW.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Bosse, H. (1975).
“Heinz Bosse – Fritz Hölzel. Ein kartographisches Interview.”
Offsetdruckerei Henning Wocke, Karlsruhe.

Brandstätter, L. (1970).
“Schattenplastik oder Scharungsplastik. Über die notwendige Neugestaltung topographischer Gebirgskarten im Zeitalter der Luftbildtechnik.”
Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft Wien, Band 112, Heft II/III: 233-252.

Castner, H.W., and R.D. Wheate (1979).
Re-assessing the Role Played by Shaded Relief on Topographic Scale Maps.”
The Cartographic Journal, 16/2: 74-82.

Collier, P. et al. (2003).
The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps: The Depiction of Relief.”
The Cartographic Journal, 40/1: 17–26.

Heim, A. (1927).
“Die Beleuchtung in der Landkarte.”
Die Alpen – Monatsschrift des Schweizer Alpenclub, 3/1: 374-386.

Hölzel, F. (1957).
“Schattenplastische Geländeverfahren.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3/4: 133-141.

Hölzel, F. (1962).
“Die Geländeschattierung in einer Krise?”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 17-21.

Hurni, L. (2006).
Cartographic Mountain Relief Presentation – 150 Years of Tradition and Progress at ETH Zurich.”
Proceedings of the 6th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, Lenk, Switzerland, 85-91.

Hurni, L. (2010).
Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited – Forty Years after Eduard Imhof.”
Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences; 115; 1-20.

Hurni, L. and C. Häberling (2004).
Mountain Cartography: Revival of a Classic Domain.”
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 57(1-2): 134-158.

Imhof, E. (1958).
“Naturalistik und Abstraktion in der kartographischen Geländedarstellung.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 1-6.

Imhof, E. (1965).
“Kartographische Geländedarstellung.”
New York and Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..

Imhof, E. (1982).
“Cartographic Relief Presentation.”
New York and Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..

Jenny, B. (2008).
Cartographic Relief Presentation (Book Review).”
The Cartographic Journal, 45/4: 320.

Kretschmer, I. (1986).
“Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie: von den Anfängen bis zum ersten Weltkrieg. Lemma Schräglichtschummerung.”
F. Deuticke.

Kretschmer, I. (1986).
“Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie: von den Anfängen bis zum ersten Weltkrieg. Lemma Schummerung.”
F. Deuticke.

Krüger, J. (1998).
“Die Geländeschattierung noch immer in der Krise?”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3: 100-104.

Lehmann, O. (1931).
Zur Frage der Richtung seitlicher Lichtgebung auf Karten.”
Der Schweizer Geograph, Nr. 5 & 6.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Discussion.”
The Geographic Journal, 43/3: 398-407.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Part I.”
The Geographic Journal, 43/2: 233-248.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Part II.”
The Geographic Journal, 43/3: 395-398.

Mellmann, P. (1988).
“Ausbildung in schattenplastischer Geländedarstellung. Ein Erfahrungsbericht.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 32-37.

Miller, G. (2016).
How Mapmakers Make Mountains Rise Off the Page.”
All over the Map, Blog by National Geographic.

Patterson, T. and B. Jenny (2012).
Живописная планета.”
Мир музея No 5/297: 46-50.

Räber, S. et al. (2009).
Swiss Style Relief Shading Methodology: Knowledge base for further development and application in digital cartography.”
Proceeding for the 24th International Cartographic Conference, Santiago, Chile.

Production Techniques

Bantel, W. (1973).
“Der Reproduktionsweg vom einfarbigen Relieforiginal zur mehrfarbigen Reliefkarte.”
Internationales Jahrbuch für Kartographie, 13. Orell Füssli Verlag, Zürich.

Barnes, D. (2002).
Using ArcMap to Enhance Topographic Presentation.”
Cartographic Perspectives, Journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, 42: 5-11.

Brassel, K. (1973).
“Ein- und mehrfarbige Printerdarstellungen.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 5: 177-183.

Brewer, C. et al. (2005).
Comparison of GIS and Graphics Software for Advanced Cartographic Symbolization and Labeling: Five GIS Projects.”
Proceedings, 22nd International Cartographic Conference, International Cartographic Association (ICA), A Coruña, Spain, July, 10 pp.

Carmichael, L. D. (1964).
Experiments in Relief Portrayal.”
The Cartographic Journal, 1/11: 11-17.

Carmichael, L. D. (1969).
The Relief of Map Making.”
The Cartographic Journal, 6/1: 18-20.

Eyton, J. R. (1990).
Color Stereoscopic Effect Cartography.”
Cartographica, 27/1: 20-29.

Fremlin, G. and A. H. Robinson (1998).
Relief Representation.”
Cartographica, 35/1&2: 55-71.

Gantenbein, C. (2012)
Creating Shaded Relief for Geologic Mapping using Multiple Light Sources.”
Digital Mapping Techniques ’10 — Workshop Proceedings. U.S. Geological Survey. 101-106.

Geisthövel R., and L. Hurni (2015)
Automatic Rock Depiction via Relief Shading.”
Proceedings of the 27th International Cartographic Conference (ICC).

Gilman, C.R. (1981).
The manual / photomechanical and other methods for relief shading.”
The American Cartographer, 8/1: 41-53.

Herrmann, C. (1973).
“Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten topographischer Übersichtskarten (am Beispiel des Maßstabes 1 : 500 000).”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 148-156.

Hölzel, F. (1957).
“Zur Kombination von Geländeschummerung und Höhenstufen.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 2: 40-42.

Jenny, B., Buddeberg, J., Hoarau, C. and Liem, J. (2015).
Plan oblique relief for web maps.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Karssen, A. (1982).
“Mask hill shading: a new method of relief representation.”
ITC Journal, 2: 160-169.

Mietzner, H. (1959).
“Die Schummerung unter Annahme einer naturgemäßen Beleuchtung.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3: 73-79.

Patterson, T. (1997).
A Desktop Approach to Shaded Relief Production.”
Cartographic Perspectives, Journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, 28: 38-40.

Phillips, R. J. et al. (1975).
Some Objective Tests of the Legibility of Relief Maps.”
The Cartographic Journal, 12/1: 39-46.

Pillewizer, W. (1957).
“Geländedarstellung durch Reliefphotographie.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3/4: 141-144.

Price, W. (2001).
Relief Presentation: Manual Airbrushing Combined with Computer Technology.”
The Cartographic Journal, 38/1: 107-112.

Tait, A. (2002).
Photoshop 6 Tutorial: How to Create Basic Colored Shaded Relief.”
Cartographic Perspectives, Journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, 42.

Toth, T. (1973).
“Terrain Representation Manual.”
Cartographic Division, National Geographic Society.

Analytical Relief Shading

Akers, D. et al. (2003).
Conveying Shape and Features with Image-Based Relighting.”
IEEE Visualization 2003.

Ammann, L. et al. (2012).
Surface Relief Analysis for Illustrative Shading.”
Computer Graphics Forum, 31/4: 1481-1490.

Bär, H. (1995).
“Interaktive Bearbeitung von Geländeoberflächen.”
Dissertation. Department of Geography, University of Zurich.

Batson, R.M., Edwards, E. and Eliason, E.M. (1975).
Computer-generated shaded-relief images.”
Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, 3/4: 401-408.

Bernabé Poveda, M. et al. (2005).
Correction of Relief Inversion in Images Served by a Web Map Server.”
International Cartographic Conference (ICC 2005), A Coruña, Spain, July 2005.

Bernabé Poveda, M. et al. (2011).
Techniques for Highlighting Relief on Orthoimagery.”
International Conference: Spatial Thinking and Geographic Information Sciences 2011.

Blinn, J.F. (1977).
Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures.”
SIGGRAPH 77: 192-198.

Böhm, R. (1991).
“Herstellung und Gestaltung von Schummerungen aus Rasterhöhendaten.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 129-136.

Böhm, R. (1998).
“Kartographische Reliefdarstellung mittels digitaler Bildfilterverfahren.”
Dissertation. Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Cartography.

Böhm, R. (1999).
“Filter-Kombinationsschummerung mittels adaptiver Operatoren.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 6: 229-235.

Brassel, K. (1973).
“Modelle und Versuche zur automatischen Schräglichtschattierung.”
Dissertation. University of Zürich.

Brassel, K. (1974).
A Model for Automatic Hill-Shading.”
The American Cartographer, 1/1: 15-27.

Brassel, K. (1974).
“Ein Modell zur automatischen Schräglichtschattierung.”
Internationales Jahrbuch für Kartographie, 14: 66-77.

Brewer, C.A., Marlow, K.A. (1993).
Color Representation of Aspect and Slope Simultaneously.”
Proceedings Auto-Carto 11, Minneapolis, MN, 328-337.

Bui-Tuong, P. (1975).
Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures.”
CACM, 18/6: 311-317.

Bünzli, M. (2011).
Optimizing the display of the Shuttle Radar Terrain Model (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Swiss Mapping standards applied to digital mapping.”
Swiss Humanitarian Aid Reports and Papers Series I: WES/GIS/2011/1.

Burrough, P. A. (1986).
Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment.”
Clarendon Press. Oxford.

Cammarano, M. (2004).
Depicting Terrain with Shaded Relief Maps.”
Stanford University, Internet:

Cignoti, P. et al. (2005).
A simple normal enhancement technique for interactive non-photorealistic renderings.”
Computers & Graphics, 29: 125–133.

Corripio, J. G. (2003).
Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainous terrain.”
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17/1: 1–23.

Ding, Y. and Densham, P.J. (1994).
A loosely synchronous, parallel algorithm for hill shading digital elevation models.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 231 – 1.

Eyton, R. J. (2005).
Unusual display of DEMs.”
Cartographic Perspectives, 50: 7-23.

Fattal, R. et al. (2007).
Multiscale Shape and Detail Enhancement from Multi-light Image Collections.”
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 26/3: Art. 51.

Fehr, E. (2011).
Statistical Properties of Watersheds.”
Dissertation. ETH Zürich.

Fletcher, P. A. and P. K. Robertson (1993).
Interactive Shading for Surface and Volume Visualization on Graphics Workstations.”
IEEE Visualization 1993.

Foley, J.D., van Dam, A., Feiner, K., Hughes, J.F. (1990). *3rd edition available.
Computer Graphics: Principles and practice.”

Goss, M.E., Page, I. (1993).
Normal vector generation for sampled data using Fourier filtering.”
The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 4: 33-39.

Gössmann, M., Volkert, J., Zischler, H. (1984).
“Realisierung von Aufgaben aus der Kartographie auf der Multiprozessoranlage EGPA.”
Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen, 94.

Gottschalk, H.-J. (1976).
“Automatische Schummerung.”
Probleme der Geländedarstellung. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kartographie.

Gottschalk, H.-J. (1981).
“Einige Probleme der Schräglichtschattierung.”
Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen, 82: 27-34.

Guo, Q.S. and X.Y. Wang (2003).
The Technique of Relief-Shading with Multi-Direction Lights.”
Proceedings of the 21st International Cartographic Conference (ICC).

Häfele, G. (1992).
“Methoden zur Herstellung einer digitalen Schräglichtschattierung in der Kartographie.”
Diploma thesis. Universität Wien.

Häfele, G. (1993).
“Herstellung von digitaler Schräglichtschattierung in Verbindung mit GIS.”
Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, 6.

He, Z. et al. (2007).
Research on Color Relief Shading Mapping Based on DEM.”
Department of Cartography and GIS, School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University.

Hobbs, F. (1995).
The rendering of relief images from digital contour data.”
The Cartographic Journal, 32.

Hobbs, F. (1995).
“The rendering of relief images from surface slope / aspect algorithms.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 25.

Hobbs, F. (1999).
An investigation of RGB multi-band shading for relief visualisation.”
JAG, 1/3&4.

Horn, B.K.P. (1979).
“Hill shading and the reflectance map.”
Workshop on Image Understanding, Palo Alto, CA, April, Proceedings: 79-120.

Horn, B.K.P. (1981).
“Hill shading and the reflectance map.”
Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE, 69/1: 14-47.

Horn, B.K.P. (1982).
“Hill shading and the reflectance map.”
Geo-processing, 2/1: 65-146.

Hügli, H. (1979).
Vom Geländemodell zum Geländebild: Die Synthese von Schattenbildern.”
Vermessung Photogrammetrie Kulturtechnik, 10.

Hügli, H. (1980).
De la synthèse d’images appliquée aux maquettes de terrain numérique.”
Institut für Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie, ETH Zürich, Mitteilung Nr. 28.

Hurni, L. (1995).
Modellhafte Arbeitsabläufe zur digitalen Erstellung von topographischen und geologischen Karten und dreidimensionalen Visualisierungen.”
Dissertation. Institute of Cartography, ETH Zurich.

Hurni, L., Jenny, B., Dahinden, T., Hutzler, E. (2001).
Interactive Analytical Shading and Cliff Drawing: Advances in Digital Relief Presentation for Topographic Mountain Maps.”
Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference, ICC 2001 Bejing.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Computergestützte Schattierung.”
Proceedings of the ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography, Symposium 29.3–2.4.2000. Technical University Dresden, Kartographischer Baustein 18.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Computergestützte Schattierung in der Kartografie.”
Diplomarbeit. Institute of Cartography, ETH Zurich.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Estompage assisté par ordinateur.”
Vermessung Photogrammetrie Kulturtechnik, 10.

Jenny, B. (2001).
An Interactive Approach to Analytical Relief Shading.”
Cartographica 38/1&2: 67-75.

Jenny, B. (2001).
Computer aided relief shading.”
Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference, ICC 2001 Bejing.

Jenny, B. and L. Hurni (2006).
Swiss-Style Colour Relief Shading Modulated by Elevation and by Exposure to Illumination.”
The Cartographic journal, 43/3: 198–207.

Jenny, B. and L. Hurni (2008).
Farbige Reliefkarten à la Suisse.”
Geosciences Actuel, 1: 27-30.

Katzil, Y., and Y. Doytsher (2003).
A logarithmic and sub-pixel approach to shaded relief representation.”
Computers & Geosciences, 29: 1137-1142.

Kennelly, P. (2002).
Hillshading with oriented halftones.”
Cartographic Perspectives, 43: 25-42.

Kennelly, P. (2006).
Non-photorealistic rendering and terrain representation.”
Cartographic Perspectives, 54: 35-53.

Kennelly, P. (2008).
Terrain maps displaying hill-shading with curvature.”
Geomorphology, 102: 567–577.

Kennelly, P. (2009).
Hill-Shading Techniques to Enhance Terrain Maps.”
Proceedings of the 24th International Cartographic Conference, Santiago, Chile.

Kennelly, P. (2013).
Cross-Hatched Shadow Line Maps.”
The Cartographic Journal, 49/2: 135–142.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Kimerling (2001).
Modifications of Tanaka’s illuminated contour method.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 28/2.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Kimerling (2004).
Hillshading of Terrain Using Layer Tints with Aspect-Variant Luminosity.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 31/2: 67-77.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Stewart (2006).
A uniform sky illumination model to enhance shading of terrain and urban areas.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 33/1: 21-36.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Stewart (2014).
General sky models for illuminating terrains.”
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 28/2: 383-406.

Kennelly, P. and J. Stewart (2015).
Relief Shading with Sky Models.”
Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, 21: 69-76.

King, R. (1993).
“Analytische Schummerung mit Hilfe von digitalen Bildverarbeitungsalgorithmen.”
Diploma thesis. FH Karlsruhe.

Lee, C. et al. (2006).
Geometry-Dependent Lighting.”
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 12/2: 197-207.

Lehmann, J.G. (1799).
Darstellung einer neuen Theorie der Bezeichnung der schiefen Flächen in Grundriss oder der Situationszeichnung der Berge.”

Leonowicz, A. and B. Jenny (2012).
Automated Small-Scale Relief Shading: A New Method and Software Application.”
Geographia Technica, Special Issue: 90-95.

Leonowicz, A. et al. (2010).
Automated Reduction of Visual Complexity in Small-Scale Relief Shading.”
Cartographica, 45/1: 64–74.

Leonowicz, A. et al. (2010).
Terrain Sculptor: Generalizing Terrain Models for Relief Shading.”
Cartographic Perspectives, 67: 51-60.

Lindemann, F. and T. Ropinski (2011).
About the Influence of Illumination Models on Image Comprehension in Direct Volume Rendering.”
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17/12: 1922-1931.

Loisios, D., Tzelepis, N, and Nakos, B. (2007).
A methodology for creating analytical hill-shading by combining different lighting directions.”
Proceedings of the International Cartographic Conference, ICC, 2007 Moscow.

Lukas, K. (1994).
“Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung von Methoden der computergestützten Schräglichtschattierung.”
Diploma thesis. Geographisches Institut Universität Zürich.

Lukas, K., Weibel, R. (1995).
Assessment and improvement of methods for analytical hillshading.”
Proceedings of the 17th International Cartographic Conference, Barcelona, Spain. 2231-2240.

Mark, R. (1992).
Multidirectional, oblique-weighted, shaded-relief image of the Island of Hawaii.”
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

Marsik, Z. (1971).
Automatic relief shading.”
Photogrammetria, 27: 57-70. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Marston, B. E. and Jenny, B. (2015).
Improving the representation of major landforms in analytical relief shading.”
International Journal of Geographical Information Science.

Minnaert, M. (1961).
Photometry of the Moon.”
Planets and Satellites, Univ. Chicago Press, 3: 213-248.

Moellering, H. and Kimerling, A.J. (1990).
A new digital slope-aspect display process.”
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 17/2: 151-159.

Pelton, C. (1987).
A Computer Program for Hill-Shading Digital Topographic Data Sets.”
Computers & Geosciences, 13/5: 545-548.

Peucker, T. K. et al. (1974).
“The Computer Version of Three Relief Representations”
Display and Analysis of Spatial Data, John Wiley & Sons: 187-197.

Pike, R. J. (1992).
Machine Visualization of Synoptic Topography by Digital Image Processing.”
U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2016. Selected Papers in the Applied Computer Sciences: Chapter B.

Pingel, T. J. and K. C. Clarke (2014).
Perceptually Shaded Slope Maps for the Visualization of Digital Surface Models.”
Cartographica, 49/4: 225-240.

Podobnikar, T. (2012).
Multidirectional Visibility Index for Analytical Shading Enhancement.”
The Cartographic Journal, 49/3: 195–207.

Prechtel, N. (2000).
“Operational analytical hill shading within an advanced image processing system.”
Proceedings of the ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography, Symposium 29.3-2.4.2000. Technical University Dresden, Kartographische Bausteine, 18: 85-98.

Preetham, A. J. et al. (1999).
A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight.”
Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques: 91-100.

Rusinkiewicz, S., M. Burns, and D. DeCarlo (2006).
Exaggerated Shading for Depicting Shape and Detail.”
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 25/3.

Samsonov, T. (2013).
Morphometric Mapping of Topography by Flowline Hachures.”
The Cartographic Journal, 51/1: 63-74.

Schachter, B. (1980).
Computer Generation of Shaded Relief Maps.”
Academic Press. Inc. ISBN 0-12-267180-5. 355-368.

Schulz, S. (1990).
“Herstellung mehrfarbiger Schummerungen mit Hilfe der EBV.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 1-4.

Serebryakova, M. (2014).
Automatic Adjustment of Image Sharpness in Relief Shading.”
Master thesis, Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation, ETH Zurich, 73p.

Solteszova, V. et al. (2012).
A Perceptual-Statistics Shading Model.”
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 18/12: 2265-2274.

Tarini, M. et al. (2006).
Ambient Occlusion and Edge Cueing to Enhance Real Time Molecular Visualization.”
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 12/5..

Todo, H. et al. (2007).
Locally Controllable Stylized Shading.”
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 26/3: Art. 17.

Vergne, R. et al. (2008).
Apparent relief: a shape descriptor for stylized shading.”
NPAR ’08 Proceedings of the 6th international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering: 23-29.

Vergne, R. et al. (2008).
Shading with Apparent Relief.”
SIGGRAPH 08 ACM SIGGRAPH 2008 talks: Art. 34.

Vergne, R. et al. (2009).
Light warping for enhanced surface depiction.”
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 28/3: Art. 25.

Veronesi, F. and L. Hurni (2014).
Random Forest with semantic tie points for classifying landforms and creating rigorous shaded relief representations.”
Geomorphology, 224: 152–160.

Veronesi, F. and L. Hurni (2015).
A GIS tool to increase the visual quality of relief shading by automatically changing the light direction.”
Computers & Geosciences 74, 121–127.

Viljoen, D. and J. R. Harris (2007).
Saturation and value modulation (SVM): A new method for integrating color and grayscale imagery.”
Digital Mapping Techniques’06: 87–100.

Ware, C. (1989).
Fast hill shading with cast shadows.”
Computers & Geosciences, 15/8: 1327-1334.

Weibel, R. (1989).
“Konzepte und Experimente zur Automatisierung der Reliefgeneralisierung.”
Geoprocessing Series, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 218p.

White, D. (1985).
Relief modulated thematic mapping by computer.”
The American Cartographer, 12/1: 62-68.

Wiechel, H. (1878).
“Theorie und Darstellung der Beleuchtung von nicht gesetzmässig gebildeten Flächen mit Rücksicht auf die Bergzeichung.”
Civilingenieur 24: 335-364.

Yoëli, P. (1959).
“Relief Shading.”
Surveying and Mapping, 19/2: 229-232.

Yoëli, P. (1965).
“Analytical Hill Shading.”
Surveying and Mapping, 25/4: 573-579.

Yoëli, P. (1965).
“Analytische Schattierung. Ein kartographischer Versuch.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 142-148.

Yoëli, P. (1966).
“Analytical Hill Shading and Density.”
Surveying and Mapping, 26/2: 253-259.

Yoëli, P. (1966).
“Analytische Schattierung und Dichte.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 17-23.

Yoëli, P. (1966).
“Die Mechanisierung der analytischen Schattierung (Facettenmethode).”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 5: 103-107.

Yoëli, P. (1967).
“Die Richtung des Lichtes bei analytischer Schattierung.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 2: 37-44.

Yoëli, P. (1967).
The Mechanisation of Analytical Hill Shading.”
The Cartographic Journal, 4/2: 82-88.

Yoëli, P. (1967).
“Topographische Karten und Rechenautomaten.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 116-118.

Yoëli, P. (1971).
“An experimental electronic system for converting contours into hill shaded relief.”
International Yearbook of Cartography, 11: 111-114.

Yoëli, P. (1976).
Computer-Aided Relief Presentation By Traces of Inclined Planes.”
The American Cartographer, 3/1: 75-85.

Yokoyama, R. et al. (2002).
Visualizing Topography by Openness: A New Application of Image Processing to Digital Elevation Models.”
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 68/3: 257-265.

Zhao, F. and X. Liu (2014).
3D gradient enhancement.”
The Visual Computer: International Journal of Computer Graphics archive, 30/1: 113-126.

Zhou, Q. (1992).
Relief shading using digital elevation models.”
Computers & Geosciences, 18/8: 1035-1045.

Zhou, X. and Dorrer, E. (1995).
An adaptive algorithm of shaded-relief images from DEMs based on wavelet transforms.”
Digital photogrammetry and remote sensing ’95, SPIE Proceedings Series, Volume 2646: 212-224.

History of Relief Shading

Carlberg, B. (1954).
“Schweizer Manier und wirklichkeitsnahe Karten – Probleme der Farbgebung.”
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 8-14.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (2009).
Zum 100. Todesjahr von Xaver Imfeld (1853–1909): Ingenieur und Alpenkartograph.”
Cartographica Helvetica, 39: 3-9.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (1996).
“Die Alpen auf Reliefkarten. Prunkstücke von Gyger bis Imhof.”
8. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium Bern. Vorträge und Berichte. Cartographica Helvetica, Murten, Switzerland.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (1997).
“Farbe, Licht und Schatten. Die Entwicklung der Reliefkartographie seit 1660.”
Cartographica Helvetica. Sonderheft 13: 3-35.

Müller, G. (2005).
Gustav Pelikan (1840–1919): Ein bedeutender österreichischer Kartograf und Geoplastiker.”
Salzburger Geographische Arbeiten, Bd. 38: 27-36. Salzburg, Austria.

Oberli, A. (1979).
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