By Author

Should you know of any other important publications about relief shading, please do not hesitate to contact us.


Akers, D. et al. (2003).
Conveying Shape and Features with Image-Based Relighting.
IEEE Visualization 2003.

Ammann, L. et al. (2012).
Surface Relief Analysis for Illustrative Shading.
Computer Graphics Forum, 31/4: 1481-1490.


Bantel, W. (1973).
Der Reproduktionsweg vom einfarbigen Relieforiginal zur mehrfarbigen Reliefkarte.
Internationales Jahrbuch für Kartographie, 13. Orell Füssli Verlag, Zürich.

Bär, H. (1995).
Interaktive Bearbeitung von Geländeoberflächen.
Dissertation. Department of Geography, University of Zurich.

Barnes, D. (2002).
Using ArcMap to Enhance Topographic Presentation.
Cartographic Perspectives, Journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, 42: 5-11.

Batson, R.M., Edwards, K., Eliason, E.M. (1975).
Computer-generated shaded-relief images.
Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, 3/4: 401-408.

Bernabé-Poveda, M. and A. Çöltekin (2015).
Prevalence of the terrain reversal effect in satellite imagery.
International Journal of Digital Earth, 8/8: 640-655.

Bernabé-Poveda, M. et al. (2005).
Correction of Relief Inversion in Images Served by a Web Map Server.
22nd International Cartographic Conference (ICC), A Coruña, Spain, 9–16 July 2005.

Bernabé-Poveda, M. et al. (2011).
Techniques for Highlighting Relief on Orthoimagery.
International Conference: Spatial Thinking and Geographic Information Sciences 2011.

Biland, J., and A. Çöltekin (2017).
An empirical assessment of the impact of the light direction on the relief inversion effect in shaded relief maps: NNW is better than NW.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 44/4: 358-372.

Blinn, J. F. (1977).
Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures.
SIGGRAPH ’77, 11/2: 192-198.

Böhm, R. (1999).
Filter-Kombinationsschummerung mittels adaptiver Operatoren.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 6: 229-235.

Böhm, R. (1998).
Kartographische Reliefdarstellung mittels digitaler Bildfilterverfahren.
Dissertation. Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Cartography.

Böhm, R. (1991).
Herstellung und Gestaltung von Schummerungen aus Rasterhöhendaten.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 129-136.

Bosse, H. (1975).
Heinz Bosse – Fritz Hölzel. Ein kartographisches Interview.
Offsetdruckerei Henning Wocke, Karlsruhe.

Brandstätter, L. (1970).
Schattenplastik oder Scharungsplastik. Über die notwendige Neugestaltung topographischer Gebirgskarten im Zeitalter der Luftbildtechnik.
Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft Wien, Band 112, Heft II/III: 233-252.

Brassel, K. 1974 (2021).
Correction for “A Model for Automatic Hill-Shading”.
The American Cartographer. 1/1: 15-27, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 48/1, 93.

Brassel, K. (1974).
A Model for Automatic Hill-Shading.
The American Cartographer, 1/1: 15-27.

Brassel, K. (1974).
Ein Modell zur automatischen Schräglichtschattierung.
Internationales Jahrbuch für Kartographie, 14: 66-77.

Brassel, K. (1973).
Ein- und mehrfarbige Printerdarstellungen.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 5: 177-183.

Brassel, K. (1973).
Modelle und Versuche zur automatischen Schräglichtschattierung.
Dissertation. University of Zürich.

Brewer, C. et al. (2005).
Comparison of GIS and Graphics Software for Advanced Cartographic Symbolization and Labeling: Five GIS Projects.
Proceedings of the 22nd International Cartographic Conference (ICC), A Coruña, Spain, 9–16 July 2005.

Brewer, C. A. and K. A. Marlow (1993).
Color Representation of Aspect and Slope Simultaneously.
Proceedings Auto-Carto 11, Minneapolis, MN, 328-337.

Brown, L. (2014).
Texture shading: A new technique for depicting terrain relief.
9th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, April 22–26, Banff, Canada.

Bui Tuong, P. (1975).
Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures.
Communications of the ACM, 18/6: 311-317.

Bünzli, M. (2011).
Optimizing the display of the Shuttle Radar Terrain Model (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Swiss Mapping standards applied to digital mapping.
Swiss Humanitarian Aid Reports and Papers Series I: WES/GIS/2011/1.

Burrough, P. A. (1986).
Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment.
Clarendon Press. Oxford.


Cammarano, M. (2004).
Depicting Terrain with Shaded Relief Maps.
Stanford University.

Carlberg, B. (1954).
Schweizer Manier und wirklichkeitsnahe Karten – Probleme der Farbgebung.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 8-14.

Carmichael, L. D. (1969).
The Relief of Map Making.
The Cartographic Journal, 6/1: 18-20.

Carmichael, L. D. (1964).
Experiments in Relief Portrayal.
The Cartographic Journal, 1/1: 11-17.

Castner, H.W. and R. Wheate (1979).
Re-assessing the Role Played by Shaded Relief on Topographic Scale Maps.
The Cartographic Journal, 16/2: 74-82.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (2009).
Zum 100. Todesjahr von Xaver Imfeld (1853–1909): Ingenieur und Alpenkartograph.
Cartographica Helvetica, 39: 3-9.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (1997).
Farbe, Licht und Schatten. Die Entwicklung der Reliefkartographie seit 1660.
Cartographica Helvetica. Sonderheft 13: 3-35.

Cavelti Hammer, M. (1996).
Die Alpen auf Reliefkarten. Prunkstücke von Gyger bis Imhof.
8. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium Bern. Vorträge und Berichte. Cartographica Helvetica, Murten, Switzerland.

Chiba T., Kaneta, S., Suzuki, Y. (2008).
Red Relief Image Map: New Visualization Method For Three Dimensional Data.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Part B2. Beijing. 1071-1076.

Chu H. J., Chen Y. C., Zeeshan Ali M., Höfle B. (2019).
Multi-Parameter Relief Map from High-Resolution DEMs: A Case Study of Mudstone Badland.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019, 16: 1109.

Cignoni, P. et al. (2005).
A simple normal enhancement technique for interactive non-photorealistic renderings.
Computers & Graphics, 29/1: 125-133.

Collier, P. et al. (2003).
The Representation of Topographic Information on Maps: The Depiction of Relief.
The Cartographic Journal, 40/1: 17-26.

Çöltekin, A. and J. Biland (2019).
Comparing the terrain reversal effect in satellite images and in shaded relief maps: an examination of the effects of color and texture on 3D shape perception from shading.
International Journal of Digital Earth, 12/4: 442-459.

Çöltekin, A., Hartung, G., Meyer, M. (2019).
Deconstructing the relief inversion effect: Contributors of the problem and its solutions.
Abstracts of the 29th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Tokyo, Japan, 15–20 July 2019.

Corripio, J. G. (2003).
Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainous terrain.
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17/1: 1-23.


Ding, Y. and P. J. Densham (1994).
A loosely synchronous, parallel algorithm for hill shading digital elevation models.
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 21/1: 5-14.

Douglass, N. A. K. and C. S. Fish (2022).
That’s a Relief: Assessing Beauty, Realism, and Landform Clarity in Multilayer Terrain Maps.
Cartographic Perspectives, (100).


Eyton, J. R. (2005).
Unusual display of DEMs.
Cartographic Perspectives, 50: 7-23.

Eyton, J. R. (1990).
Color Stereoscopic Effect Cartography.
Cartographica, 27/1: 20-29.


Farmakis-Serebryakova, M, and L. Hurni (2020).
Comparison of Relief Shading Techniques Applied to Landforms.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2020, 9(4), 235. This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design.

Farmakis-Serebryakova, M, M. Heitzler, L. Hurni (2022).
Terrain Segmentation Using a U-Net for Improved Relief Shading.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2022, 11(7), 395. This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design.

Fattal, R. et al. (2007).
Multiscale Shape and Detail Enhancement from Multi-light Image Collections.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2022, 11(7).

Fehr, E. (2011).
Statistical Properties of Watersheds.
Dissertation. ETH Zürich.

Fletcher, P. A. and P. K. Robertson (1993).
Interactive Shading for Surface and Volume Visualization on Graphics Workstations.
IEEE Visualization 1993.

Florinsky, I. V. and S. V. Filippov (2019).
Three‐dimensional terrain modeling with multiple‐source illumination.
Transactions in GIS. 2019, 23: 937-959.

Foley, J.D., van Dam, A., Feiner, K., Hughes, J.F. (1990). *3rd edition available.
Computer Graphics: Principles and practice.

Fremlin, G. and A. H. Robinson (1998).
Relief Representation.
Cartographica, 35/1&2: 55-71.


Gantenbein, C. (2012).
Creating Shaded Relief for Geologic Mapping using Multiple Light Sources.
Digital Mapping Techniques ’10 — Workshop Proceedings. U.S. Geological Survey. 101-106.

Geisthövel, R. and L. Hurni (2018).
Automated Swiss-Style Relief Shading and Rock Hachuring.
The Cartographic Journal, 55/4: 341-361.

Geisthövel R. and L. Hurni (2015).
Automatic Rock Depiction via Relief Shading.
Proceedings of the 27th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23–28 August 2015.

Gilman, C. R. (1981).
The manual / photomechanical and other methods for relief shading.
The American Cartographer, 8/1: 41-53.

Goss, M. E. and I. Page (1993).
Normal vector generation for sampled data using Fourier filtering.
The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 4: 33-39.

Gössmann, M., Volkert, J., Zischler, H. (1984).
Realisierung von Aufgaben aus der Kartographie auf der Multiprozessoranlage EGPA.
Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen, 94.

Gottschalk, H.-J. (1981).
Einige Probleme der Schräglichtschattierung.
Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen, 82: 27-34.

Gottschalk, H.-J. (1976).
Automatische Schummerung.
Probleme der Geländedarstellung. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kartographie.

Guo, Q. S. and X. Y. Wang (2003).
The Technique of Relief-Shading with Multi-Direction Lights.
Proceedings of the 21st International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Durban, South Africa, 10–16 August 2003.


Häfele, G. (1993).
Herstellung von digitaler Schräglichtschattierung in Verbindung mit GIS.
Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, 6.

Häfele, G. (1992).
Methoden zur Herstellung einer digitalen Schräglichtschattierung in der Kartographie.
Diploma thesis. Universität Wien.

He, Z. et al. (2007).
Research on Color Relief Shading Mapping Based on DEM.
Department of Cartography and GIS, School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University.

Heim, A. (1927).
Die Beleuchtung in der Landkarte.
Die Alpen – Monatsschrift des Schweizer Alpenclub, 3/1: 374-386.

Herrmann, C. (1973).
Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten topographischer Übersichtskarten (am Beispiel des Maßstabes 1 : 500 000).
Kartographische Nachrichten, 4: 148-156.

Hobbs, F. (1999).
An investigation of RGB multi-band shading for relief visualisation.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 1/3–4: 181-186.

Hobbs, F. (1995).
The rendering of relief images from digital contour data.
The Cartographic Journal, 32/2: 111-116.

Hobbs, F. (1995).
The rendering of relief images from surface slope / aspect algorithms.
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 25.

Hodgson, M. (1998).
Comparison of angles from surface slope/aspect algorithms.
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 25: 173-185.

Hölzel, F. (1962).
Die Geländeschattierung in einer Krise?
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 17-21.

Hölzel, F. (1957).
Schattenplastische Geländeverfahren.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3/4: 133-141.

Hölzel, F. (1957).
Zur Kombination von Geländeschummerung und Höhenstufen.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 2: 40-42.

Horn, B.K.P. (1982).
Hill shading and the reflectance map.
Geo-processing, 2/1: 65-146.

Horn, B.K.P. (1981).
Hill shading and the reflectance map.
Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE, 69/1: 14-47.

Horn, B.K.P. (1979).
Hill shading and the reflectance map.
Workshop on Image Understanding, Palo Alto, CA, April, Proceedings: 79-120.

Huffman D.P. (2014).
Shaded Relief in Blender.
9th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, 22-26 April 2014, Banff, Canada.

Hügli, H. (1980).
De la synthèse d’images appliquée aux maquettes de terrain numérique.
Institut für Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie, ETH Zürich, Mitteilung Nr. 28.

Hügli, H. (1979).
Vom Geländemodell zum Geländebild: Die Synthese von Schattenbildern.
Vermessung Photogrammetrie Kulturtechnik, 10.

Hurni, L. (2010).
Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited – Forty Years after Eduard Imhof.
Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, 115: 1-20.

Hurni, L. (2006).
Cartographic Mountain Relief Presentation – 150 Years of Tradition and Progress at ETH Zurich.
Proceedings of the 6th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, 11-15 February 2008, Lenk, Switzerland, 85-91.

Hurni, L. (1995).
Modellhafte Arbeitsabläufe zur digitalen Erstellung von topographischen und geologischen Karten und dreidimensionalen Visualisierungen.
Dissertation. Institute of Cartography, ETH Zurich.

Hurni, L. and C. Häberling (2004).
Mountain Cartography: Revival of a Classic Domain.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 57/1-2: 134-158.

Hurni, L., Jenny, B., Dahinden, T., Hutzler, E. (2001).
Interactive Analytical Shading and Cliff Drawing: Advances in Digital Relief Presentation for Topographic Mountain Maps.
Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Beijing, China, 6–10 August 2001.


Imhof, E. (1985).
Ein neues Kartengemälde des Reliefs der Schweiz.
Vermessung, Photogrammetrie, Kulturtechnik, 83(2), 37-39.

Imhof, E. (1982).
Cartographic Relief Presentation.
New York and Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..

Imhof, E. (1965).
Kartographische Geländedarstellung.
New York and Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..

Imhof, E. (1958).
Naturalistik und Abstraktion in der kartographischen Geländedarstellung.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 1-6.


Jenny, B. (2008).
Cartographic Relief Presentation (Book Review).
The Cartographic Journal, 45/4: 320.

Jenny, B. (2001).
An Interactive Approach to Analytical Relief Shading.
Cartographica 38/1-2: 67-75.

Jenny, B. (2001).
Computer aided relief shading.
Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Beijing, China, 6–10 August 2001.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Computergestützte Schattierung.
Proceedings of the ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography, Symposium 29.3–2.4.2000. Technical University Dresden, Kartographischer Baustein 18.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Computergestützte Schattierung in der Kartografie.
Diplomarbeit. Institute of Cartography, ETH Zurich.

Jenny, B. (2000).
Estompage assisté par ordinateur.
Vermessung Photogrammetrie Kulturtechnik, 10.

Jenny, B., Buddeberg, J., Hoarau, C. and Liem, J. (2015).
Plan oblique relief for web maps.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 42/5: 410-418.

Jenny, B. and T. Patterson (2021).
Aerial perspective for shaded relief.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 48/1: 21-28.

Jenny, B. and T. Patterson (2007).
Introducing Plan Oblique Relief.
Cartographic Perspectives, (57), 21-40.

Jenny, B., Heitzler,  M., Singh, D., Farmakis-Serebryakova, M., Chieh Liu, J., Hurni, L. (2021).
Cartographic Relief Shading with Neural Networks.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 27/2: 1225-1235, Feb. 2021.

Jenny, B. and L. Hurni (2008).
Farbige Reliefkarten à la Suisse.
Geosciences Actuel, 1: 27-30.

Jenny, B. and L. Hurni (2006).
Swiss-Style Colour Relief Shading Modulated by Elevation and by Exposure to Illumination.
The Cartographic Journal, 43/3: 198-207.


Karssen, A. (1982).
Mask hill shading: a new method of relief representation.
ITC Journal, 2: 160-169.

Katzil, Y. and Y. Doytsher (2003).
A logarithmic and sub-pixel approach to shaded relief representation.
Computers & Geosciences, 29: 1137-1142.

Kennelly, P. J. (2022).
Decoupling Slope and Aspect Vectors to Generalize Relief Shading.
The Cartographic Journal.

Kennelly, P. (2012).
Cross-Hatched Shadow Line Maps.
The Cartographic Journal, 49/2: 135-142.

Kennelly, P. (2009).
Hill-Shading Techniques to Enhance Terrain Maps.
Proceedings of the 24th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Santiago, Chile, 15–21 November 2009.

Kennelly, P. (2008).
Terrain maps displaying hill-shading with curvature.
Geomorphology, 102: 567-577.

Kennelly, P. (2006).
Non-photorealistic rendering and terrain representation.
Cartographic Perspectives, 54: 35-53.

Kennelly, P. (2002).
Hillshading with oriented halftones.
Cartographic Perspectives, 43: 25-42.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Kimerling (2004).
Hillshading of Terrain Using Layer Tints with Aspect-Variant Luminosity.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 31/2: 67-77.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Kimerling (2001).
Modifications of Tanaka’s illuminated contour method.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 28/2: 111-123.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Stewart (2006).
A uniform sky illumination model to enhance shading of terrain and urban areas.
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 33/1: 21-36.

Kennelly, P. and A. J. Stewart (2014).
General sky models for illuminating terrains.
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 28/2: 383-406.

Kennelly, P. and J. Stewart (2015).
Relief Shading with Sky Models.
Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, 21: 69-76.

Kennelly, P. and G. Trantham (2021).
Shadows eclipse relief shading.
30th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Florence, Italy, 14–18 December 2021.

King, R. (1993).
Analytische Schummerung mit Hilfe von digitalen Bildverarbeitungsalgorithmen.
Diploma thesis. FH Karlsruhe.

Kokalj, Z. and M. Somrak (2019).
Why Not a Single Image? Combining Visualizations to Facilitate Fieldwork and On-Screen Mapping.
Remote Sensing 2019, 11: 747.

Kretschmer, I. (1986).
Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie: von den Anfängen bis zum ersten Weltkrieg. Lemma Schräglichtschummerung.
F. Deuticke.

Kretschmer, I. (1986).
Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie: von den Anfängen bis zum ersten Weltkrieg. Lemma Schummerung.
F. Deuticke.

Krüger, J. (1998).
Die Geländeschattierung noch immer in der Krise?.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3: 100-104.


Lee, C. et al. (2006).
Geometry-Dependent Lighting.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 12/2: 197-207.

Lehmann, J. G. (1799).
Darstellung einer neuen Theorie der Bezeichnung der schiefen Flächen in Grundriss oder der Situationszeichnung der Berge.

Lehmann, O. (1931).
Zur Frage der Richtung seitlicher Lichtgebung auf Karten.
Der Schweizer Geograph, 6: 153-157.

Leonowicz, A. and B. Jenny (2012).
Automated Small-Scale Relief Shading: A New Method and Software Application.
Geographia Technica, Special Issue: 90-95.

Leonowicz, A. et al. (2010).
Automated Reduction of Visual Complexity in Small-Scale Relief Shading.
Cartographica, 45/1: 64-74.

Leonowicz, A. et al. (2010).
Terrain Sculptor: Generalizing Terrain Models for Relief Shading.
Cartographic Perspectives, 67: 51-60.

Lindemann, F. and T. Ropinski (2011).
About the Influence of Illumination Models on Image Comprehension in Direct Volume Rendering.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17/12: 1922-1931.

Loisios, D., Tzelepis, N, and Nakos, B. (2007).
A methodology for creating analytical hill-shading by combining different lighting directions.
Proceedings of the International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Moscow, Russia, 4–10 August 2007.

Lukas, K. (1994).
Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung von Methoden der computergestützten Schräglichtschattierung.
Diploma thesis. Geographisches Institut Universität Zürich, 127p.

Lukas, K., Weibel, R. (1995).
Assessment and improvement of methods for analytical hillshading.
Proceedings of the 17th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Barcelona, Spain, 3–9 September 1995.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Part I.
The Geographic Journal, 43/2: 233-248.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Part II.
The Geographic Journal, 43/3: 395-398.

Lyons, H. G. (1914).
Relief in Cartography: Discussion.
The Geographic Journal, 43/3: 398-407.


Mark, R. (1992).
Multidirectional, oblique-weighted, shaded-relief image of the Island of Hawaii.
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

Marsik, Z. (1971).
Automatic relief shading.
Photogrammetria, 27: 57-70. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Marston, B. E. and B. Jenny (2015).
Improving the representation of major landforms in analytical relief shading.
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 29/7: 1144-1165

Mellmann, P. (1988).
Ausbildung in schattenplastischer Geländedarstellung. Ein Erfahrungsbericht.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 1: 32-37.

Mietzner, H. (1959).
Die Schummerung unter Annahme einer naturgemäßen Beleuchtung.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3: 73-79.

Miller, G. (2016).
How Mapmakers Make Mountains Rise Off the Page.
All over the Map, Blog by National Geographic.

Minnaert, M. (1961).
Photometry of the Moon.
Planets and Satellites, Univ. Chicago Press, 3: 213-248.

Moellering, H. and Kimerling, A.J. (1990).
A new digital slope-aspect display process.
Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 17/2: 151-159.

Müller, G. (2005).
Gustav Pelikan (1840–1919): Ein bedeutender österreichischer Kartograf und Geoplastiker.
Salzburger Geographische Arbeiten, Bd. 38: 27-36. Salzburg, Austria.


Oberli, A. (1979).
Johann Rudolph Stengel (1824—1857): Ingenieur-Topograph und Mitarbeiter Dufours.
Edition Plepp, Alfons Cavelti, Köniz.


Patterson, T. (2017).
Relief Presentation on US National Park Service Maps.
Mountain Cartography. 16 Years ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography.

Patterson, T. (2016).
Producing manual small-scale shaded relief.
10th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, 26-30 April 2016, Berchtesgaden, Germany, pp. 1-11.

Patterson, T. (2014).
Enhancing shaded relief with terrain texture shader.
9th ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, 22-26 April 2014, Banff, Canada.

Patterson, T. (1997).
A Desktop Approach to Shaded Relief Production.
Cartographic Perspectives, Journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, 28: 38-40.

Patterson, T. and B. Jenny (2012).
Живописная планета.
Мир музея No 5/297: 46-50.

Pelton, C. (1987).
A Computer Program for Hill-Shading Digital Topographic Data Sets.
Computers & Geosciences, 13/5: 545-548.

Peucker, T. K. et al. (1974).
The Computer Version of Three Relief Representations.
Display and Analysis of Spatial Data, John Wiley & Sons: 187-197.

Phillips, R. J. et al. (1975).
Some Objective Tests of the Legibility of Relief Maps.
The Cartographic Journal, 12/1: 39-46.

Pike, R. J. (1992).
Machine Visualization of Synoptic Topography by Digital Image Processing.
U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2016. Selected Papers in the Applied Computer Sciences: Chapter B.

Pillewizer, W. (1957).
Geländedarstellung durch Reliefphotographie.
Kartographische Nachrichten, 3/4: 141-144.

Pillewizer, W. (1986).
Zwischen Alpen, Arktis und Karakorum. Fünf Jahrzehnte kartographische Arbeit und glaziologische Forschung.
Kapitel: Die Faszination der Reliefplastik, 72-92.

Pingel, T. J. and K. C. Clarke (2014).
Perceptually Shaded Slope Maps for the Visualization of Digital Surface Models.
Cartographica, 49/4: 225-240.

Podobnikar, T. (2012).
Multidirectional Visibility Index for Analytical Shading Enhancement.
The Cartographic Journal, 49/3: 195-207.

Prechtel, N. (2000).
Operational analytical hill shading within an advanced image processing system.
Proceedings of the ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography, Symposium 29.3-2.4.2000. Technical University Dresden, Kartographische Bausteine, 18: 85-98.

Preetham, A. J. et al. (1999).
A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight.
Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, SIGGRAPH ’99: 91-100.

Preppernau, C. (2020).
Normalizing the Normal Map.
Cartographic Perspectives, (96), 61-74.

Price, W. (2001).
Relief Presentation: Manual Airbrushing Combined with Computer Technology.
The Cartographic Journal, 38/1: 107-112.


Räber, S. et al. (2009).
Swiss Style Relief Shading Methodology: Knowledge base for further development and application in digital cartography.
Proceedings for the 24th International Cartographic Conference (ICC), Santiago, Chile, 15–21 November 2009.

Rusinkiewicz, S., Burns M., DeCarlo D. (2006).
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